1.What is this passage mainly about?

A.  The evolution of the horse

B.  The migration of horses

C.  The modern-day pony

D.  The replacement of the anchitheres by the hipparion

2.According to the author, fossils are considered valuable for all of the following reasons EXCEPT?

A.  they suggest how the climate may have been

B.  they provide information about migration

C.  they document the evolution of the horse

D.  they maintain a record of life prior to the Miocene Age

3.The word instigated in paragraph 1 could best be replaced by?

A. explained

B. caused

C. improved

D. Influenced

4.What does the author mean by the statement Geologists believe that the first horses appeared on Earth about sixty million years ago as compared with two million years ago for the appearance of human beings?

A.  Horses appeared long before human beings according to the theories of


B.  Both horses and human beings appeared several million years ago, if we


C.  The geological records for the appearance of horses and human beings are                     not very accurate

D.  Horses and human beings cannot be compared by geologists because they

appeared too long ago.

5.Which of the following conclusions may be made on the basis of information in the passage?

A. The hipparions migrated to Europe to feed in developing grasslands.

B.  There are no fossil remains of either the anchitheres  or the hipparion.

C. There were horses in North America when the first European colonists arrived.

D.  Very little is known about the evolution of the horse.

6.The word extinct in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to?

A.  familiar                             B.   widespread

C.  nonexistent                     D.  tame

7.It can be concluded from this passage that the?

A.        Miocene Period was prior to the Pleistocene

B.        Pleistocene Period was prior to the Miocene

C.        Pleistocene Period was prior to the Pliocene

D.        Pliocene Period was prior to Miocene

Problem 30 Purpose–Infinitives

S         V         C         infinitive (purpose)

Laura           jogs           to stay fit

She            takes         vitamins          to feel better

Incorrect:  Don’t move your feet when you swing for play golf well.

Correct  :  Don’t move your feet when you swing  to play golf well.

Incorrect:  Virginia always boils the water twice make tea

Correct  :  Virginia always boils the water twice to make tea.

Incorrect:  Wait until June plant those bulbs.

Correct  :  Wait until June  to plant those bulbs.

Problem 31 Passive–Word Order

S         Be  participle

State University  is    located  at the corner of College and Third

Incorrect:  Mr. Wilson known as Willie to his friends.

Correct  :  Mr. Wilson known as Willie to his friends.

(It is Mr. Wilson, not his friends, that is important.)

Incorrect:  References not used in the examination room.

Correct  :  References  are not used  in the examination room. (It is references, not the person

using them, that are important.)

Incorrect:  Laura born in Iowa.

Correct  :  Laura was born in Iowa.(It is Laura, not her mother who bore her, that is important.)

Problem 32 Passive–Agent


by                    machine

This report was written        by

Incorrect:  The car was inspected for Customs.

Correct  :  The car was inspected by customs.

Incorrect:  The bill has already been paid Mr. Adams.

Correct  :  The bill has already been paid by mr. Adams.

Incorrect:  State University is governed from the Board ofRegents.

Correct  :  State University is governed by the board or regents.

Problem 33 Passive–Infinitives

S          Be (present)   to be     participle    future time

The project    is         to be   completed       by 2005

S                      Be (past)         to be participle        future time

The project          was             to be completed       by 1995

Incorrect:  The results of the exam are to announced tomorrow.

Correct  :  The results of the exam are to be announced  tomorrow.

Incorrect:  We were to be notify if there was a problem.

Correct  :  We were to be notified if there was a problem.

Incorrect:  The game is to rescheduled.

Correct  :  The game is to be rescheduled.

Problem 34 Necessity for Repair or Improvement–Need

S                     NEED             -ing form

This paragraph                     needs                         revising

S                     NEED      to be          participle

This paragraph            needs               to be          revised

Incorrect: The house needs to paint, but we plan to wait until next summer to do it.

Correct  :  The house needs painting, but we plan to wait until next summer to do it.


The house needs to be painted, but we plan to wait until next summer to do it.

Incorrect:  Her watch needed repaired.

Correct  :  Her watch needed repairing.


Her watch needed to be repaired.

Incorrect: The hem of this dress needs mended before I wear it again.

Correct  :  The hem of this dress needs mending before I wear it again.


The hem of this dress needs to be mended before I wear it again.

Problem 35 Belief and Knowledge–Anticipatory It

Anticipatory it      that                     S           V

It is believed    that         all mammals        experience    dreams.

Incorrect:  It is said that a buried treasure near here.

Correct  :it is said  that a buried treasure hidden near here.

Incorrect:  It is believed that a horseshoe bringing good luck.

Correct  : it is believed that a horse shoe brings good luck.

Incorrect:  It is thought that our ancestors building this city.

Correct  : it is thought  that our ancestors build this city.

Problem 36 Duration–HAVE Participle

S                                 HAVE             participle


The English language   has   changedsince Shakespeare’s time.

Incorrect:  Ray given us a lot of help since we arrived.

Correct  :  Ray us a lot of help since we arrived.

Incorrect:  I have took this medication since 1985.

Correct  :  I have taken this medication since 1985.

Incorrect:  We been friends since we were children.

Correct  :  We have been friends since we were children.

Problem 37 Duration–HAVE + Been + Participle

HAVE  been  participle

She   has       been               accepted        to State University

Incorrect:  Wayne has elected to the student government.

Correct   :  Wayne  to the student government.

(It is Wayne, not the people who elected him, who is important.)

Incorrect:  We been taught how to cook.

Correct  :  We  have been how to cook.

(It is we, not the  people who taught us, who are important.)

Incorrect:  The class been changed to room 10.

Correct  :  The class has been changed to room 10.

(It is the class, not the person who changed it, that is important.)

Problem 38 Predictions–Will Have + Participle

adverb (future)          S         will  have   participle

By the year 2010 researchers  will  havediscovered   a cure of cancer

Incorrect :  Before school is out, I have returned all of my library books.

Correct  :before school is out ,will have returned all of my library books.

Incorrect:  We have gotten an answer to our letter by the time we have to make a decision.

Correct  :   We will have gotten an answer to our letter by the time we have to make a decision.

Incorrect:  Before we can tell them about the discount, they will bought the tickets.

Correct  :before we can tell them about the discount, they will have bought the tickets.

Problem 39 Unfulfilled Desires in the Past–Had Hoped

S       had hoped    that        S      would        verb word

We     had hoped    that     she       would        change      her mind

S         had hoped     object pronoun      -ingform            verb word

We      had hoped              her         changing       her mind

Incorrect: They had hoped that she not find out about it.

Correct  : They had hoped that she would not find out about it.

Incorrect:  I had hoped she coming to the party.

Correct  :  I had hoped that she word come to the party.

Incorrect: His father had hoped that he go into business with him.

Correct  :  His father had hoped that he would go into business with him.

Problem 40 Missing Auxiliary Verb–Active

BE                   -ing

Mom               is                     watering         her plants.

HAVE                 participle

Mom              has      watered               her plants

MODAL          verb word

Mom   should               water

her plants.

Incorrect:  The sun was shining when we left this morning.

Correct  :   The sun was shining  when we left this morning.

Incorrect:  We gone there before.

Correct  :   We have gone there before.

Incorrect:  I can’t talk with you right now because the doorbell ringing.

Correct  :  I can’t talk with you right now because the doorbell is ringing.

Problem 41 Missing Auxiliary Verb–Passive

S                     BE       participle

The plants            are           watered

The plants       have been   watered

The plants       should be    watered

Incorrect:  These books should returned today.

Correct  :  These books should be returned today.

Incorrect:  The plane delayed by bad weather.

Correct  :  The plane was delayed by bad weather.

Incorrect:  My paper has not typed.

Correct  :  My paper has not been typed.